Mannerism and Baroque

After and during a period of the High Renaissance new kinds of art appeared in the Western world. Mannerism was one of the themes of art that were created during the years 1520-1600.  During those years the artists of Mannerism did not refer to their work as mannerism, “mannerism” is a term that came about … More Mannerism and Baroque

The Decline of Spain

Beginning in the early 1600s Spain began to decline from its prior position of wealth during the 1500s. There were many factors that contributed to the decline of Spain.  The output of precious metals from the New World dropped drastically and contributed to Spain’s loss of wealth. Another issue that arose causing more declines in … More The Decline of Spain


Constitutionalism is when the person in charge of a country, say a monarch or president, is limited in power and the things that he can do.  A constitution can be a written document or it can be a known fact. A Jesuit Spaniard, Juan de Mariana wrote a couple of books on limiting the power … More Constitutionalism

The Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, occurring in 1688, was deemed glorious because there was very little bloodshed involved in the revolution; there might have been fifteen deaths in all.  This revolution came about in England because the English citizens were not happy with their king, King James II.  It appeared that James wanted to convert the country … More The Glorious Revolution

Oliver Cromwell

 English life under the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell was not peaceful.  Cromwell did not want monarchs to be the rulers of England so he encouraged the execution of the current king, Charles I.  Charles ended up getting executed in 1649 and Cromwell became the Lord Protector of England.  Before Charles was executed Cromwell established a … More Oliver Cromwell

The Levellers

The Levellers were a group of people in seventeen century England who formed a great political movement for libertarianism. A few of the key Levellers were Richard Overton, John Lilburne, and William Walwyn. Their views caused the first-ever movement for libertarian ideas. They believed that an individual owned themselves. A person should be able to … More The Levellers