Ninth and Tenth Century Invasions

The ninth and tenth century invasions of the Magyars, Muslims, and Vikings were devastating to Europe, Spain, and Africa. The Magyars who were of Asian origin attacked Germany, parts of France and Northern Italy, though Germany was most greatly effected by them. By 1000 the Magyars were Christianized and established the kingdom of Hungary. The Muslim invasions were based in Africa and Spain, they eventually died down by the late tenth century. Then there were the Vikings, or sometimes called Norsemen, who were from Scandinavia. They raided mostly coastal cities in France. In 911, the king of France, Charles the Simple, made a deal with the Vikings, he allowed them to live on part of his land as though it was their own, in exchange for peace. This land took up the name Normandy.

These invasions were so brutal that the kings could not even protect their people! The people needed protection so manorialism developed. Manorialism is when a lord takes in serfs, people who will be bound to his land and cultivate it, in exchange for protection. Then feudalism takes place, the lord needed someone to protect him and his serfs, so he gets a vassal, a knight, the lord then gives the vassal part of his land as a way of income for the vassal. These lords with manorialism and feudalism were the basis of the coming parliament, they even had more power over people than the king himself!

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